Conflict Resolution Education Connection

Building Healthy Relationships and Strong Communities Through Conflict Education.
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CRE Terms Glossary

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This is a glossary of terms related to the field of conflict resolution education. You'll find the terms followed by a short definition and any related terms that you might want to become familiar with. Another useful tool for understanding more general education-related terms is the ERIC thesaurus.

Accommodation/smoothing
A style of conflict resolution in which one person gives in or accedes to the wishes of the other
Acknowledgment
confirming behavior that indicates awareness of or interest in the other person's perceptions, comments, or questions
Action-oriented listeners
listeners who concentrate mostly on the task at hand and prefer to listen to people who present information in a logical and organized way
Affect displays
spontaneous facial expression of emotion
Bargaining
Competitive negotiation process
Bargaining range
The overlap of the settlement ranges of the bargainers
Biases
Perceiving something in a way that is not accurate
Brainstorming
Generating ideas for solving a problem before evaluating or critiquing those ideas
Bullying
Repeated, intentional aggressive behavior intended to harm another and to create power imbalance
Caucusing
When a mediator meets individually with one of the parties in the mediation to talk about issues
Causal inference
Assumptions we make about what causes a certain effect, usually refers to judgments we make about why people do things
Certainty communication
Defensive communication that suggests you are completely right and completely certain that you are right
Clarifying response
a confirming behavior that acknowledges someone by asking for more information about what they've just said or done
Classroom agreements
Agreements negotiated by students and teachers about acceptable behavior in the classroom
Classroom management style
A general tendency to be either hands-on, hands-off or hands-together as a style of dealing with classroom management
Classroom meetings
Having students in a class convene for a discussion of issues or activity.
Classroom rules
Specific rules for behavior in a classroom, usually created by teacher and students
Cognitive perspective taking
being able to understand how a person sees a situation, what his or her needs and interests are in that situation
Collaborative strategies
conflict management strategies in which concern for the self and the other fully merge, and conflicts are seen as residing within the relationship, thus, only mutually satisfying solutions are acceptable
Collectivistic cultures
cultures that encourage interdependence among members, teaching them the importance of allegiance to in-groups, that provide continued protection in exchange for loyalty
Co-mediation
A mediation process in which two mediators work together
Co-mediator
One of the team of mediators in co-mediation - usually the one that is less in charge of the mediation
Communication
the process of constructing meaning through the sharing of thoughts, ideas, feelings, and information with others
Communication-facilitation
A mediator strategy that uses search for information, instruction, and supportive communication to uncover the nature of the conflict
Communication resources
communication behaviors, skills and competencies that help us accomplish what we want to communicatively
Communicative competence
learning to achieve language skills and nonverbal skills that promote social interaction, such as making friends and dealing with conflict
Competing/forcing
a conflict resolution style that is win-lose, shows a strong concern for the self but a low concern for the other
Compliment
a confirming behavior, a way of endorsing someone by saying something positive about him or her
Compromising
a conflict resolution style that involves splitting the difference or a give and take approach, shows a moderate concern for self and a moderate concern for other
Concessions
Giving a little on an issue in bargaining to try and come to an agreement
Confidentiality
The idea in mediation that what is said in mediation is not shared with anyone outside the mediation
Confirmation
you accept the right of the other person to define you, himself or herself, or the relationship
Confirmation bias
Once we have an impression of the other person, our tendency to keep seeing them that way, even if there is information to the contrary
Conflict
the expression of a disagreement between two or more interdependent people about what should be done and/or how it should be done
Conflict competence
the ability to manage conflict positively and functionally
Conflict escalation
occurs when the feelings associated with the conflict become more hostile, when the behaviors used in conflict become more aggressive, when the positions taken in the conflict become more extreme, and when the willingness to adopt cooperative orientation to the conflict decreases
Conflict resolution education
teaching children how to manage conflict effectively and giving them life skills that will empower them to be happier, more successful citizens
Conflict styles
A tendency we have for how we deal with conflict - a general approach to conflict management
Connection power
Influence we get because of who we know
Contact cultures
cultures that use more touch and less personal space (e.g., Arab, Latin American, and Southern European nations) than do members of non-contact cultures
Contact hypothesis
predicts that making contact with stereotyped individuals and interacting with them over time will break down the stereotypes we have about them
Contempt
an emotion resulting from perceived superiority, often expressed as an insult
Content
the information we exchange and the understandings we achieve
Content level
gives the ",content", or basic data of the message, denotative meaning, what the words actually mean
Control communication
Defensive communication that directs or tells the other what to do
Criteria
In principled negotiation and/or mediation, the standards used to determine whether a solution meets the interests of the parties and should be selected
Criticism
Verbal behavior that attacks the relational partner's personality or character, presents as a general deficit, not of a specific action or issue
Cultural context
the layers of culture that influence our communication in any given interaction
Cultural display rules
rules based on our cultural expectations that guide us in terms of appropriate behavior in a given situation
Cultural identity
views of ourselves that we share with other people in that culture based on influences in the culture
Cultural sensitivity
Understanding that there are different emotional cultures as well as the ability to appropriately follow the display rules prescribing and proscribing emotional expression
Culture
shared ways of behaving and interpreting common to an identity group
Defensive climates
a climate or atmosphere that is created when a person perceives or anticipates a threat to their face or identity
Defensive communication
Communication that makes someone else more likely to become defensive
Defensiveness
communication behaviors devoted to resisting or preventing aggression or attack from a relational partner
Descriptive communication
Non-defensive communication that describes something rather than evaluates
Direct acknowledgment
a confirming behavior that acknowledges the other by directly signaling that you have heard and understand their request or statement
Disconfirmation
behavior that communicates that the sender does not have the right of self-definition
Display rules
a culturally created understanding of how we should strategically show or express something
Disqualification
the most sophisticated form of disconfirmation, looks as if you are responding to the other, but you answer refuses to engage them. Can take one of four forms: disqualify the sender, disqualify the receiver, disqualify the content, disqualify the context
Distributive approaches
competitive approaches to conflict, assuming the parties are in conflict over the allocation of some scarce resource and that each party wishes to win as much of that resource as possible
Dysfunctional conflict
a conflict where one or both parties are dissatisfied with the process or outcome (or both) of the conflict management
Emotion coaching
a five-step process for teaching children basic skills of emotional competence
Emotion scripts
sets of expectations for how we should react emotionally in certain situations in order to be appropriate, acting surprised at a surprise party
Emotional acknowledgment
a confirming behavior that acknowledges someone by telling him or her you notice the emotion he or she has expressed
Emotional awareness
awareness of one's own and other's emotions
Emotional competence
knowing how to express emotions to fit the situation, the culture, and personal needs, understanding how to discern one's emotional state and others' emotional states, understanding the vocabulary of emotion, coping with aversive and pleasurable emotional situations, using emotions strategically and at an appropriate time, a developmental process
Emotional expressivity
willingness and ability to express one's emotions
Emotional flooding
being swamped by emotion to the extent that you cannot think effectively
Emotional immaturity
inability to behave in an emotionally competent way due to development that has yet to occur in the social or cognitive domain
Emotional incompetence
through developmentally able, a person is unable to manage his or her emotions at the same level as his or her age and culture expect
Emotional intelligence
the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, motivating ourselves, and managing emotions effectively in ourselves and in our relationships
Emotional perspective taking
the ability to understand how the other person is feeling and why they are feeling that way
Emotional regulation
learning to control one's impulses to respond emotionally
Emotions
the feelings that motivate us to act in all facets of life
Empathy
the ability to feel what someone else is feeling
Empathy communication
Non-defensive communication that shows you can understand the other person's experience
Endorsement
confirming behavior that sends the message, ",The way you are feeling is okay,", or ",The way you are perceiving is okay.
Equality communication
Non-defensive communication that treats the other person as an equal
Ethnocentrism
the belief that one's culture is the center of everything and therefore superior to other cultures. Encourages people to apply the norms and standards of their own culture when judging other cultures: ",This is the way we do it, so this is the way everyone should do it.",
Evaluation communication
Defensive communication that judges the other
Expertise power
Influence we have because of a general area of expertise or knowledge we have, like computer programming
Face
Goffman's notion of the self we want to present in interaction
Face work
ongoing, yet often implicit process of trying to present our ",face", in interactions
Facilitate emotional reappraisal
a process of elicitive questions and conversation that enable people to change the way they experience a situation and, by doing so, change how they feel about it
Facilitator
A third party who focuses on re-establishing communication between disputing parties but who does not become involved in substantive issues
Forgiveness
no longer being upset with someone because of what he or she did
Frame of reference
our view of the world and the assumptions we make about reality as shaped by our prior experiences
Functional conflict
a conflict where both parties are pleased with the process and outcome of the conflict management
Fundamental attribution error
A perceptual bias where we tend to blame the person rather than the situation for an event
Generating Options
In principled negotiation and/or mediation, the process of generating ideas or options for solution
Gender
the socially prescribed expectations or roles for people of a particular sex, usually discussed in terms of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny
Generative conflict
creating conflicts that are functional in order to enhance creativity and constructive change
Giving face
Doing something to restore or give back someone's identity or face after it has been attacked
Goal-congruent emotions
In Lazarus's theory, positive emotions: compassion, happiness, hope, love pride, relief
Goal-incongruent emotions
in Lazarus' theory, negative emotions: anger, anxiety, disgust, envy, fright, guilt, jealousy, sadness, shame
Halo effect
a perceptual bias where we assume that a person has many positive qualities if they have one positive quality
Haptics
the study of nonverbal touch
High context (HC) communication
a message in which most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person, a concept used to distinguish cultures
Hostile attribution
negative assumptions you make about others

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