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International CRE Policy Examples

Writing Conflict Resolution into educational policies helps to institutionalize and normalize good practice. In preparation for a 2007 regional meeting in Belgrade, a collection of policy examples from around the world was compiled. This document is now available for your review.

Examples of policy and legislative work being done around the world are provided below.

 

 

Armenia  Armenia flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Major Educational Policy in Armenia, “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education in Schools” Project Goals for 2008-2010
In 2007 the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Armenia developed Restoring Armenia’s Strength in Education project. It has been developed through consultations with representatives of a wide range of education stakeholders and presents the aims, principles and strategic approaches for the development of education. Once finalized, it will become the foundation of Armenia’s 2008-2015 National Development Program for Education.

CRE Contact(s):
Gohar Markosyan President Women for Development NGO Shahinyan str.6a, apt.16 Gyumri 3118 Republic of Armenia Tel: (374312)33007

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Australia  Australia flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Government schools are governed by Department regulation for managing student behaviour. Conflict resolution can invariably be attached to such regulation. However this can be framed within a rather autonomous and competitive environment. School Councils are responsible for developing local codes of conduct (DSE, 1994). School budgets are linked to student numbers and perceptions of success can be based on the number of students who progress to higher education. Effective school discipline is also seen as a marker of success (DE&T, 2000). Teachers are responsible for developing classroom strategies consistent with their school’s code. Grounds for suspension and expulsion are spelled out and a process for managing school exclusion outlined. However, the document is open to interpretation and this is particularly evident for school exclusions. Perceptions about public or parent expectations can also influence discipline policy and procedure.

CRE Contact(s):
Gary Shaw Office of Learning & Teaching Department of Education and Training Level 3, 33 St. Andrews Place East Melbourne 3002 ph: +61 3 9637 2031 fax:+ 61 3 9637 2170

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Brazil  Brazil flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

In the last decade, many experiences on conflict resolution were started throughout Brazil. Both civil society and the Government have been stimulating, supporting and developing initiatives in this area.

In the area of access to justice and community-based initiatives the Secretariat for Judiciary Reform, created in 2003 as a unit within the Ministry of Justice, has been conducting meetings with civil society groups to discuss issues related access to justice,  alternative dispute resolution, community conflict mediation, restaurative justice, conciliation and others topics.

In addition, the Special Secretariat for Human Rights has provided financial support for the establishment of 40 community mediation centers often called “Balcoes de Direito.” There is little uniformity in the manner that they have been established, but many use young law students provide legal information and accompaniment services as well as to divert cases to trained community mediators.  To some extent the use of law students has help reshape legal education in many parts of Brazil and enhanced students legal education through practical experience. 

CONIMA, the largest association of mediators in Brazil has develop strong ethical standards for it members, but other than these examples few policies, legislation or mandates to govern alternative dispute resolution practices or educational initiatives on this or related topics exist.  Specific programs may have developed documents to guide and govern implementation of services, but it is not possible to say that the country has a policy on the topic.
 
What are the current Government-NGOs partnerships?
The government, through the Secretariat for Human Rights has financially supported the establishment of 40 “Balcões de Direitos” throughout the country. These centers offer vulnerable populations judicial and human rights information and community conflicts resolution services. The Centers are operated by local NGOs with some state government oversight. The NGOs have trained community leaders to mediate conflicts in their own communities, following the principles of autonomy and empowerment. To date this is probably the most important initiative to promote peaceful conflict resolution in the country.  Representatives of three of the Balcões have come together to evaluate the lessons learned from the various centers so far and develop some best practices based on the experiences.

What are some policy supports?
The Special Secretariat for Human Rights is currently organizing an event to bring together experts on the issues to talk about best practices and maybe start to build up specific policy to this issue. The Secretariat on Human Rights is not yet convinced that the adoption of a determined methodology would be a good idea, but structured reflection is needed not only in order to better understand the experiences that already take place and discuss how to leverage the expansion of CRE throughout the country. The Secretariat for Human Rights recognizes that better CRE policy will help to define roles and mandates, avoid waste to resources and the unnecessary duplication of efforts.  Similarly, the Judiciary Reform Secretariat plans to hold discussion forums with NGO, experts, civil society groups and professional associations on CRE in order to make the Judiciary system work better.

Perhaps the main question the Government is facing at the moment is to determine what role the government can constructively play to best leverage resources to expand the field of CR and CRE and bring the benefits of CR to most of the country.

CRE Contact(s):
Charlotte McDowell Projects Coordinator Innovations in Civic Participation 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Suite 201 Washington DC, 20008 202-775-0290 202-833-8581 (fax) .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) Herbert Borges Paes DeBarros Project Managaer Special Secretariat for Human Rights Esplanada Dos Ministrerios Bloco T, Anexo II Sala 203 Brasilia, DF 55-61-3429-3678 55-61-3226-7695 (fax) .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) Washington DC

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Canada  Canada flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

In Canada, education is Provincial (rather than Federal/National).  Accordingly, education legislation is the mandate of the thirteen Provincial/Territorial Governments.  There is a Canadian Ministers of Education Council which meets annually to discuss matters of common interest.  It is our understanding that no Canadian Governmental body is proposing to establish any legislation or policy initiatives with respect to Conflict Resolution or Peace Education.

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Costa Rica  Costa Rica flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

The Academy for Peace of Costa Rica has been successful in creating a congressional Bill, which in the Fall of 2008 faces no governmental opposition and is currently included to be voted on in the present session of the Costa Rican national legislature. When passed, this Bill will establish peace infrastructure within the Costa Rican government, including the creation of the Ministry for Justice and Peace (formerly the Ministry of Justice) and detailing public-private collaboration between the Costa Rican government, non-governmental organizations including the Academy for Peace, and Pro-Peace organizations in Costa Rica.

The piece of legislation detailed above serves as the structural basis for establishing peace infrastructure in the Costa Rican government, and providing the foundation for working relationships between the public and private sector toward the creation of a culture of peace. This peace infrastructure is the first part of a two-pronged approach in disseminating a culture of peace throughout Costa Rica.

The second aspect of this approach relates specifically to the Academy for Peace’s grassroots work in the public school system, which will be extended to the national level with the recently-acquired support of the Ministry of Public Education (MEP), and funded in part by the private Costa Rican organization, the Association of Businesses for Development (AED). The Academy for Peace is currently working with MEP and AED to design and implement a national curriculum for peace education in the Costa Rican school system, based on replicating the BePeace model currently established in the public school system of the county of Santa Ana. The Academy for Peace will train peace educators who will work with MEP in the national public school system to extend the BePeace method throughout the country.

The Ministry of Public Education sends teachers on paid time to the 40-hour BePeace Course and allows Academy trainers to train students, teachers and parents throughout the school year. Costa Rica’s Minister of Justice, Laura Chinchilla, has also played an influential role in helping our peace legislature make its way into the national congressional body to be voted on.

CRE Contact(s):

Rita Marie Johnson - .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

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Cyprus  Cyprus flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Officially very little is done in terms of adapting and implementing legislation or policy. There are however civil society organizations on both the Turkish Cypriot community and the Greek Cypriot community that are making inroads into the area of CRE/PE.

On the legal arena there is a conceded decision (30 September 2004) by the Turkish Cypriot Council of Ministers ‘to using mediation as a tool in resolving interpersonal conflicts’. There is also a bill submitted to the Turkish Cypriot Parliament by the former Chief Supreme Court Justice (founding member of the Mediation Association) through the consultation with the Mediation Association to integrate mediation into the legal system.

On the other hand as members of the European Union (EU), the Greek Cypriot community ‘must adopt procedures to enforce settlement agreements, protect the confidentiality of mediation communications and promote training of mediators under a new directive adopted on Oct. 25, 2004’ which will come into affect as of 1 September 2007. The EU Directive on ADR also requires Member States to develop mechanisms to ensure the quality of mediation services and encourage mediators to adhere to voluntary codes of conduct.

The North Cyprus Mediation Association put together a bill related to CR for the Supreme Court to submit to parliament; however, the bill has been waiting for deliberation for the past three years.

CRE Contact(s):
UZLAŞIM DERNEĞİ NORTH CYPRUS MEDIATION ASSOCIATION Adres: Şht. Sermet Kanatlı Sok. D.4, Köşklüçiftlik, Lefkoşa. KKTC. E-mail: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) Tel: (0392) 228 6057 Fax: (0392) 227 3667 http://welcome.to/uzlasim

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Democratic Republic of Congo  Democratic Republic of Congo flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

As of 2008 there is no specific curriculum for Peace Education for the Democratic Republic of Congo, but work is occurring. There are not any planned legislative structures going forward specifically designed to support peace education at this time.

CRE Contact(s):

Jean-Pierre Mfuni Mwanza or .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

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Hungary  Hungary flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

This 2007 powerpoint slide presentation on Educational Integration Measures in Hungary highlights work in educational settings being lead by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities. The goal is to reduce segregation and mistreatment of minority populations such as the Roma.

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India  India flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Some existing policies and initiatives for Conflict resolution education / Peace Education:

Gandhian thoughts and studies are given high priorities in educational institutions. However CRE/PE being a new emerging field, much remains to be done for introduction in a systematic manner within the educational system. To highlight some initiative of the Government and autonomous institutions and civil societies are given in two groups one is at the national level and the second is at the local and regional level (North east India context).There are also various others initiatives for human rights education and yoga’s, etc. The list here is just to highlight a few.

National initiatives analysis and highlights:
http://www.ncert.nic.in
http://www.nfi.org.in
http://www.cmseducation.org
http://www.wiscomp.org/peace.htm
http://www.nccindia.in
http://www.hmiindia.com
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/publ/etp36.htm
http://www.indiadaily.org/entry/india-waits-for-unemployment-explosion-in-2020
http://jmi.nic.in/cpcr/staff/faculty.htm

Local and regional initiatives (North east India)

http://www.okd.in
http://www.northeastnetwork.org
http://www.cdpsindia.org
http://cfpem.webs.io
http://www.geocities.com/leagueinfriendshipendeavour
http://www.jaey-geoffery.blogspot.com

Compiled by: Leban Serto (leban.serto@gmail)
Peace Education Activist. India

CRE Contact(s):

Leban Serto -  .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
Centre for Peace Education Manipur

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Israel  Israel flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

In the Israeli situation, with pupils studying in separate schools (Arab or Jewish, religious or secular), infrequent encounters and classroom activities are not enough.
There is a need for legislation or explicit directives, backed by continuous budgeting from within the system, to ensure continuity and adequate depth of study.
There is a need for increased knowledge of, and familiarity with, the culture, language and customs of the “other” group.  This must also be embodied in a binding regulation, rather than left to the judgment of personnel at the regional or school level.
The number of participating schools should be increased.

CRE Contact(s):
State of Israel Ministry of Education and Culture Pedagogic Administration Psychological Counseling Service 2 Dvorah Haneviah, Jerusalem 91911 Tel.: 02-5603243, 02-5603237, Fax: 02-5603256 http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/UNITS/Shefi

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New Zealand  New Zealand flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health appreciate the positive impact Cool Schools is having on reducing bullying and other levels of aggression and violence within schools. For evidence, see the 2007 Report on Safe Schools and Bullying Prevention. As a result, they provide funding for over half the schools in New Zealand to train the staff and provide key resources FREE of charge!

Peer mediation, conflict resolution and problem solving skills are linked to the Health and Physical Education Curriculum – Strand C, Relationships with Others, Levels 1-8. In the Ministry of Education Draft Curriculum document, the 5 Key Competencies include many achievement objectives related to the skills and processes taught in the Cool Schools Programme. The good news is that teachers can teach these as part of their Health Curriculum.

CRE Contact(s):

A list of trainers is available online.

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North Caucasus  

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

A full written report on activities in this region as of 2007-2008 is available for download as a pdf.

Here is a short summary:
Targeted peace education activities in the Republic of Dagestan have been introduced in approx. 60 educational institutions of the total number of 2,341 institutions (that accounts for 2.56 per cent of the total number of pre-school, primary, secondary, vocational and higher education institutions functioning there).

In the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, peace education programs have been realized in 10 educational institutions that accounts for 0.4 per cent of the total number of educational institutions functioning there.

In Stavropol Krai, the number of educational institutions, engaged in peace education programs on a regular basis, accounts for approx. 20 (or 1.17 per cent of the total number of 1,698 educational institutions functioning there).

In the Chechen Republic, the targeted peace education programs have been realized in approx. 30 educational institutions (or approx. 6 per cent of the total number of 497 institutions of pre-school, primary, secondary, vocational and higher education functioning there).

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Norway  Norway flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Teacher Training College Initiative
The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training has entered into an agreement with two teacher training schools in Norway to focus on conflict resolution in education in Norway.

Relevant Documents
The pupils’ “working environment act” in Norway
http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=2432

The Knowledge Promotion - Kunnskapsløftet på engelsk
http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=2376

Manifesto against bullying - plan of measures
http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=1372

The Learning Environment in Schools and Training Establishments
http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=1365

CRE Contact(s):
Helen Johannessen

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Serbia  Serbia flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

School Without Violence Programme monitoring is organised at several levels:
• Steering Committee: The chairman is the Minister of Education and the members are representatives of ministries and institutions supporting the programme.
• Technical Team: Members of this team are members of the Steering Committee, experts, as well as NGO, youth and media representatives. The Technical Team runs programme activities and is responsible for the selection process of new schools in the programme.
• Team of Mentors: Mentors are specially-trained experts who guide the process in schools. They are responsible for education, management, support and monitoring in cooperation with the School Team.
• School Team: Formed at school level and is responsible for implementation, evaluation and support of the programme in schools.   

CRE Contact(s):

http://www.unicef.org/serbia/support_4696.html

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Sri Lanka  Sri Lanka flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Currently Sri Lanka is aligning the National Plan of Action for Children in accordance with the 2002 UN General Assembly plan year on children. The Plan of Action created by the Department of National Planning was to be presented to the Sri Lakian Prime Minister. This plan includes   education, health, and nutrition and child protection.

CRE Contact(s):

National Institute of Education, P.O. Box 21, High Level Road, Maharagama, Sri Lanka
Phone: 9412851301 Fax: 9412851300
Email: .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

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St. Lucia  St. Lucia flag icon

Legislative and Policy Initiatives:

Two pieces of legislation guide the extent to which conflict resolution exists in St. Lucia.

The Civil Procedure Rules 2000 Rule 25.1 states
The court must further the overriding objective by actively managing cases.
This may include:
Encouraging parties to use any appropriate form of dispute resolution including in particular, mediation, if the court considers it appropriate and facilitating the use of such procedures

The other piece of legislation is cited in the Education Act 2000 Chapter 18.01
Section 165
Mediation prior to the consideration of an appeal by the Education Appeal Tribunal, the Chairperson may appoint a mediator to attempt to settle the matter under the appeal.

CRE Contact(s):
Arthusa Simei Curriculum Specialist Health and Family Life Education Ministry of Education New NIS Building, Waterfront Castries St. Lucia, WI W – 4577463 .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) Rita Dyer Senior Lecturer Division of Teacher Education Sir Arthur Lewis Community College Morne Fortune Castries St. Lucia W – 758-452-5507 EXT 200 W – 758-452-7901 (Fax) .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

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